Genghis Khan: His Life and His Legacy


Genghis Khan – a name that is synonymous with barbaric cruelty and conquest. 800 years ago he created the greatest army the world has ever known, wielding it with tactical brilliance to lay claim to the largest empire in world history. No other man, not Alexander, Napoleon or Hitler, ever came close to the level of success in conquest of the Mongolian man of steel. How did he do it? In this week’s Biographics, we discover how a simple peasant rose from one of the harshest environments on the planet to take the world by storm.


Transcript Provided by YouTube:

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Genghis Khan the name that is synonymous
00:01
with barbaric cruelty and conquest 800
00:04
years ago he created the greatest army
00:06
the world has ever known
00:08
wielding it with tactical brilliance to
00:10
lay claim to the largest empire in world
00:12
history no other man alexander napoleon
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or hitler ever came close to the level
00:17
of success in conquest of the mongolian
00:19
man of steel so how did he do it well in
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today’s by graphics we discover how a
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simple peasant rose from one of the
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harshest environments on the planet to
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take the world by storm
00:40
we know about the early life of this man
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who would rise to rule the world comes
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from an account called the secret
00:46
history of the mongols written soon
00:48
after he died it tells us the genghis
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was born somewhere in the steppes of
00:51
central asia around the Year 1165 it is
00:54
said that he was born with a clot of
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blood in his hand which was seen as a
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portent of great things to come
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genghis was born into a harsh
01:00
unforgiving world the mongols who lacked
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a common chief were broken into a number
01:05
of clans who were constantly warring
01:07
with each other the landscape was vast
01:09
and rugged situated between europe and
01:11
china it consisted of an inhospitable
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series of rolling hills rocky outcrops
01:15
and freezing temperatures the Chinese
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referred to the region as the barbarian
01:19
wilderness and built a great wall to
01:21
keep its inhabitants from raiding their
01:22
border regions for the Mongols strength
01:25
was found in numbers large families were
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encouraged with polygamy and accepted
01:29
custom Genghis his father had two wives
01:31
the boy’s mother had been abducted from
01:33
her previous husband in another tribe as
01:35
a boy Genghis grew up with three
01:36
brothers a sister and two half-brothers
01:38
his earliest years were spent hunting
01:40
riding and ramming the plains as part of
01:42
a nomadic society as clan were
01:44
constantly on the move seeking new
01:46
pastures whenever the grazing for their
01:48
sheep was exhausted Genghis is reported
01:50
to have grown up as a brave and a fine
01:52
young man it’s only fear being dogs yet
01:54
he was an introvert who preferred to
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spend the bulk of his time alone with
01:57
his thoughts he was fiercely independent
01:59
seeing no value in consultation with
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others as he emerged into his teens it
02:04
was apparent to all that he had a sense
02:06
of his own destiny and that destiny lay
02:08
far beyond the clan that was then his
02:10
world as was the custom at around 9
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years old Genghis his parents arranged a
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marriage for their son his wife-to-be
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was named burtom who was from a
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neighboring tribe and Genghis was to be
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transferred to that camp so that he
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could grow up alongside his bride on the
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return trip after delivering his son
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Genghis his father met a party of Tatars
02:28
on their way to a hunting expedition
02:30
they seemed hospitable offering him food
02:32
and drink however the offerings they
02:34
were laced with poison and three days
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later his father died
02:41
Ghengis quickly returned to the
02:43
fatherless family who were abandoned by
02:45
the rest of the clan his mother
02:46
Harleen now assumes the mantle of
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headship within the household there was
02:50
constant friction between the three sons
02:52
of Helen and their two stepbrothers one
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day when he was 13 years of age Genghis
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was holding a fish that he had caught
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when one of his step brothers came up
02:59
and snatched it from his hands without
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hesitation genghis drew his bow and
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killed the boy this was the first clear
03:06
demonstration of the absolute
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ruthlessness that would come to
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characterize the boy who would become
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the Great Khan by the age of 15 genghis
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was stronger bigger and more skillful in
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hunting and horsemanship than his
03:18
brothers his brothers began to bow to
03:20
him as their natural leader his
03:22
reputation as a strong warrior began to
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spread soon the clan that had deserted
03:26
his family when his father had died got
03:28
to hear of this upstart fearing that he
03:30
might lead his brothers against them he
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decided to take the initiative by
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invading the family’s encampment and
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taking genghis captive but youngest was
03:38
able to escape the invaders fanned out
03:40
into the wilderness and nine days later
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they found him genghis was taken
03:44
prisoner and a heavy wooden yoke was
03:46
placed around his neck a couple of days
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later and waka Angus was languishing
03:50
inside a guarded tent with the yoke
03:51
still around his neck his captors threw
03:53
a celebratory party despite the
03:55
inconvenience of the yoke genghis
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managed to overpower his guard he got
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down to the river before his absence was
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discovered unable to traverse the river
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while wearing the yoke he then returned
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to the tents from which he had come
04:06
there he found the guard he had recently
04:08
overpowered genghis then displayed the
04:10
shrewdness of thinking which was to set
04:12
him apart he told the guards that unless
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he got him out of the yoke and gave him
04:15
a horse he would tell the others that
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the guard had helped him escape
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the black nail worked and he was soon
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galloping away from his captors
04:26
a year later at age 16 Genghis returned
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to the village of Berta
04:29
the girl he had been pledged to at the
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time of his father’s death it was time
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to get married as a wedding gift the
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girl’s father gave him a spectacular
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sable coat the next day genghis took his
04:38
wife back to his encampment and left her
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in the care of his mother he then rode
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off to a neighboring clan where he
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presented his new coat as a gift of the
04:45
chief Dame by the name of torille in
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doing so genghis was purchasing the
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allegiance of this powerful clan leader
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he asked a girl to help him win back the
04:54
loyalty of the tribesmen who deserted
04:56
his family after his father’s death
04:57
Tyrell was sympathetic and the pact was
05:00
formed between them news of the alliance
05:02
it soon spread other clans offered their
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support and before long genghis was able
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to call upon a formidable force of
05:07
warriors before he could put them into
05:09
action however disaster struck invading
05:11
market horseman came thundering across
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the plains intent on kidnapping the
05:15
women of genghis is camp the majority of
05:17
the clan managed to escape but genghis
05:20
is young wife Berta was taken captive by
05:22
the markets genghis desperately rode for
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the camp of Tugrul for help
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tog role announced that he would ride
05:27
upon the markets and destroy them
05:29
returning Berta to her husband’s over
05:31
the next few months the Alliance managed
05:32
to bring together more than 5000
05:34
warriors in order to ride with them the
05:37
attack was swift and decisive the Mongol
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hordes decimated the market camp killing
05:41
looting and pillaging without mercy in
05:43
the midst of the camp they found Berta
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she had been raped repeatedly and was
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pregnant shortly after returning to camp
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she gave birth to a son but it was never
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known if it was genghis child or one of
05:53
the market rapists
05:57
in the wake of the overthrow of the
06:00
markets genghis went from strength to
06:01
strength he united with the clan of his
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boyhood friend
06:04
jamika the two men became inseparable
06:06
declaring themselves blood brothers they
06:08
lived together ate together and slept
06:10
together this roused the jealousy of
06:12
genghis wife and mother he began to
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spread rumors about Jammu here in an
06:16
attempt to drive the two men apart
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whether it was the influence of the
06:19
women in his life or his own lust for
06:21
absolute power something caused genghis
06:23
to sever the bond with jamika in 1185
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the two plans were moving towards
06:27
fertile grazing grounds when jamika
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decided to turn off in camp in a valley
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he called to Genghis to join him that
06:33
Genghis ignored him and kept on riding
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carrying on a mile so he turned in his
06:37
saddle to see that not only had his own
06:39
Klansmen followed him but many of
06:41
Jamaica’s men had as well genghis was
06:43
now developing the largest following of
06:45
any of the mongrel clans this was
06:47
achieved partly through the desire for
06:48
security in numbers and partly by
06:50
coercion those who did not agree to give
06:52
Genghis their allegiance while they were
06:54
forced to do so the combination of his
06:56
desire for power and wealth and his need
06:58
to feed his ever-expanding following led
07:00
to repeated raids on other clans the
07:02
capture of their women and the
07:03
plundering of their belongings the
07:05
secret history of the Mongols previous
07:07
equates to Genghis which may be familiar
07:08
to fans of the 1982 movie Conan the
07:11
Barbarian in which the words were given
07:13
to arnold schwarzenegger as character
07:14
the greatest pleasure is to vanquish
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your enemies and chase them before you
07:18
to rob them of their wealth and see
07:20
those dear to them bathed in tears to
07:23
ride their horses and clasp to your
07:25
bosom their wives and daughters at this
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point still in his early 20s genghis had
07:29
already proved himself to be brilliant
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at psychological warfare he would attack
07:33
a tribe with horrific and devastating
07:35
force in order to intimidate the
07:37
surrounding camps to give up without a
07:38
fight as a result many thousands of his
07:41
enemies simply surrendered in order to
07:43
avoid the carnage that would result if
07:45
they resisted having subjugated and
07:47
melded into one the disparate Mongol
07:49
clans
07:50
Genghis now set his sights on the
07:51
farthest reaches of the barbarian
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wilderness among those who had not yet
07:55
joined his alliance was his former best
07:57
friend Jammu ko who was now his mortal
07:59
enemy the people of the two camps had
08:01
been able to maintain a sort of uneasy
08:03
peace however one day a disagreement
08:05
over grazing lands erupted into violence
08:07
with one of genghis men killing all
08:09
warrior from Jammu cos camp an outrage
08:11
jamika reacted by attacking the much
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larger camp of Genghis the
08:15
unexpectedness and lightning speed of
08:17
the rage resulted in the killing of many
08:18
and the capture of 70 of genghis
08:20
chieftains who were taken back to Jammu
08:22
coos camp where they were tortured and
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boiled alive genghis he was shocked to
08:26
his core at this humiliating defeat he
08:28
came to the realization that his army
08:30
was not yet ready to engage in the
08:32
large-scale conquests that he had
08:34
envisions consequently he set out to
08:36
mold them into a war machine a breed of
08:38
warrior the likes of which had never
08:40
been seen before the army that resulted
08:42
was incredibly mobile able to travel an
08:45
average of 70 miles per day the men were
08:47
subjected to the most severe discipline
08:49
in order to forge their minds and bodies
08:51
into warrior like steel
08:53
before long the reputation of the
08:55
Barbarian super army spread beyond the
08:57
boundaries of Mongolia when the rulers
08:59
of the Qin Empire in China heard about
09:01
them they invited Genghis to come and
09:02
help them fight off marauding bands that
09:04
artists who were constantly harassing
09:06
them the Tatars were also longtime
09:08
enemies of the mongols and genghis saw
09:10
this as an opportunity to exact
09:12
vengeance while expanding his reach
09:14
internationally in short order the
09:15
overpowering force of the mongols
09:17
crushed the tatars returning to triumph
09:19
in their home country genghis Asami was
09:21
immediately attacked by Jamaica’s forces
09:23
this time however genghis was ready over
09:26
a series of three bloody encounters
09:27
Jamaica’s followers were finally
09:29
subjugated Jamaica however managed to
09:32
escape fleeing to the sanctity of the
09:34
niners a powerful tribe dwelling in the
09:36
northwesterly region of the steppes
09:37
when news reached Genghis that jamika
09:39
joined the name and he set his sights on
09:41
destroying them he unleashed his 80,000
09:44
strong cavalry against them totally
09:45
overpowering them in a frenzy of
09:47
bloodletting amazingly however Jammu
09:49
kept managed to escape once again he hit
09:51
with a small plan of Mountain dwellers
09:53
but they fearing the wrath of the
09:54
invaders betrayed Jammu Khan and handed
09:56
him over to the camp of Genghis Genghis
09:58
though he was shot by the lack of
10:00
loyalty to Jammu command he had them all
10:02
slaughtered
10:03
then he extended mercy to Jammu Co with
10:05
an offer of a pardon
10:06
the Jukka refused and begged to be put
10:08
to death a ceding to his wish Genghis
10:11
allowed his old friend to be suffocated
10:12
to death inside a carpet despite his
10:14
reputation as an unfeeling executioner
10:16
genghis turned away unable to watch the
10:19
scene
10:23
having defeated the diamonds genghis was
10:25
now the supreme ruler of in excess of 2
10:28
million people
10:29
having had a taste of supreme power he
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now wanted more that were still parts of
10:33
Mongolia that were not part of his
10:35
Empire these were areas along the
10:36
eastern and southern regions of the
10:38
country over a period of months he
10:40
systematically beat into submission
10:42
those who had not yet come under his
10:44
yoke Genghis rode at the very front of
10:46
his ferocious hordes personally
10:48
overseeing every detail of the attack
10:50
but his greatest skill lay in his
10:52
ability to handpick brilliant generals
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in doing so he managed to United people
10:56
who had for centuries been at war with
10:58
one another in 1206 the people made
11:00
Genghis their supreme ruler bestowing
11:02
upon him the title of Khan the great
11:04
leader as recorded in the secret history
11:07
of the Mongols the people proclaimed we
11:09
will make you our leader our Great Khan
11:11
we will fling ourselves like lightning
11:14
upon your foes we shall give you the
11:16
fairest girls from the enemy if we
11:17
disobey you take our flocks and our
11:20
wives and our children and throw are
11:22
worthless heads upon the sand between
11:24
military conquests Genghis enjoyed the
11:26
rewards of success he gathered more
11:28
wives and fathered more children by his
11:30
first wife Burton he had four sons who
11:33
would each be given rulership over a
11:34
part of his Empire despite the wealth
11:36
luxury and family with which he now
11:38
surrounded himself Genghis was tormented
11:40
by vivid dreams in which he was
11:41
continually riding in the conquest of
11:43
one land after another impelled by these
11:45
dreams and his own innate ambition he
11:48
became fixated on the vast lands that
11:50
lay beyond the Great Wall on his
11:52
southern border
11:56
in 1206 genghis called together a great
12:00
summit of his generals and tribal
12:01
leaders to discuss his planned invasion
12:03
of China between Mongolia and China lay
12:06
the kingdom of Asiya the land of the
12:07
Tang Goods this was a key trade route
12:09
between Central Asia and the West
12:11
genghis undertook a campaign of conquest
12:13
that within two years brought the entire
12:16
kingdom of assayer
12:17
under his domain the way it was now
12:19
opened to invade China in an effort to
12:21
capitalize on his previous dealings with
12:23
the Qin Empire Khan sent a peace envoy
12:25
over the wall Qin authorities however
12:27
they were suspicious of the visitors and
12:29
they put them to death on hearing of
12:31
this outcome genghis took to his tent
12:32
and fasted for three days he emerged to
12:35
announce that the heavens had declared
12:36
that he would be victorious and the time
12:38
to wreak vengeance upon the qin was now
12:41
with 40,000 cavalry men riding behind
12:43
him genghis crossed the border smashing
12:45
over the wall and into china
12:46
they then swept down upon the Qin Empire
12:48
they approached with unrivaled speed and
12:51
quiet until almost upon the enemy when
12:53
the thundering of their horses hooves
12:54
shook the grounds the attacks that
12:57
followed were overwhelming crushing
12:58
their enemies and destroying their
13:00
encampments it was during the Qin
13:02
campaign that the ruthlessness of
13:03
Genghis Khan became legendary he would
13:06
use captured women and children as human
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shields in battle forcing them to march
13:10
ahead of his army as they approached an
13:11
enemy village within two years of first
13:14
invading China genghis had reached the
13:16
capital of the Qin Empire jong-du which
13:19
is modern-day Beijing the great city was
13:21
encircled by a wall and strongly
13:23
fortified Khan’s army laid siege for
13:25
almost a year finally with the aid of
13:28
siege towers and catapults the Mongols
13:30
managed to breach the wall after a
13:31
fierce battle and at the cost of
13:33
thousands of Chinese lives the city fell
13:35
after subjugating the Qin Empire Genghis
13:38
rode back to the steppe country of his
13:39
birth but it wasn’t long before the
13:41
spirit of conquest once more fired his
13:43
ambition he now looked to the world
13:44
beyond China he looked to the fringe of
13:47
Europe between China and Europe lay the
13:49
vast Islamic empire known as quorus on
13:51
this area was ruled by a Shah who had
13:53
power that equaled that of Genghis
13:55
himself but Khan did not wish to
13:56
subjugate the lands of the Shah he
13:58
sought only peace sending a caravan of
14:00
envoy’s to Khorasan yes just after they
14:03
crossed the border and all of his men
14:04
they were captured and slaughtered and
14:06
enraged genghis sends another group of
14:08
envoy’s this time instructing them to go
14:09
to
14:10
to the shop they too were murdered by
14:12
Islamic soldiers for Genghis who
14:14
believed in the absolute inviolability
14:15
of envoy’s this was far too much the
14:18
time for vengeance was once again at
14:19
hands he set out at the head of his
14:21
largest army to date more than 200,000
14:24
men years of savage butchery were
14:26
unleashed upon the Muslim people by the
14:28
time the bloodletting subsided genghis
14:30
khan had wrestled absolute power away
14:31
from the shop his vast empire now
14:34
spanned from the Yellow Sea in the East
14:35
all the way to the Caspian in the West
14:41
before returning to the steps Genghis
14:42
Khan appointed his son Guga day as the
14:44
heir he now faced the problem of
14:46
controlling his vast empire in the
14:48
summer of 12 26 he wrote to the head of
14:50
a hundred and eighty thousand warriors
14:51
to crush an uprising among the tangled
14:54
people before he got to them however he
14:56
fell from his horse and suffered serious
14:57
injuries and internal bleeding over the
15:00
coming months he only got worse on
15:01
August the 18th 12 26 and at the height
15:04
of his powers he died Genghis Khan’s
15:06
legacy would be cemented by his grandson
15:08
Kublai Khan who extended the Mongolian
15:10
Empire to encompass two continents and
15:12
to become the largest empire in history
15:14
perhaps Khan’s most enduring
15:16
contribution however was this although
15:18
forged through unspeakable violence his
15:20
conquests brought about a peace and
15:22
stability that enabled the first ever
15:24
flow of trade and ideas between the
15:26
eastern and western worlds so I really
15:29
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